Education – Understanding Human Development Solved Assignment – (Code 62434201)

Education Understanding Human Development Solved Answer: आजके इस आर्टिकल में हम जानने वाले है Sol DU के (Education Understanding Human Development) के सवाल के जवाब के बारे में, काफी बच्चे अभी भी लगे हुए है Sol DU के असाइनमेंट डाउनलोड करने में, लेकिन सर्वर की दिक्कत की वजह से नहीं हो पा रहा है इस आर्टिकल में आपको मै आपको SOL DU के (Education Understanding Human Development Solved Answer) के सवाल का जवाब बताने वाला हु, Sol Du BA Sem-II Education Understanding Human Development Assignment Solved Answer

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Question 1

Clarify the difference between the concept of human growth and development based on observations of daily life? Explain the role of family, school and society in human development with suitable examples.

Answer 1

Growth

refers to an increase in the size of body parts or of the organism as a whole. It can be measured or quantified, for example, growth in height, weight, etc. Development is a process by which an individual grows and changes throughout the life cycle. The term development applies to the changes that have a direction and hold definite relationship with what precedes it, and in turn, will determine what will come after.

A temporary change caused by a brief illness, for example, is not considered a part of development. All changes which occur as a result of development are not of the same kind. Thus, changes in size (physical growth), changes in proportion (child to adult), changes in features (disappearance of baby teeth), and acquiring new features are varied in their pace and scope level. Development includes growth as one of its aspects. Maturation refers to the changes that follow an orderly sequence and are largely dictated by the genetic blueprint which produces commonalities in our growth and development.

Education Understanding Human Development Solved Answer

For example, most children can sit without support by 7 months of age, stand with support by 8 months and walk by one year. Once the underlying physical structure is sufficiently developed, proficiency in these behaviors requires adequate environment and little practice. However, special efforts to accelerate these behaviors do not help if the infant is maturationally not ready. These processes seem to “unfold from within”: following an inner, genetically determined timetable that is characteristic of the species. Evolution refers to species specific changes.

Natural selection is an evolutionary process that favors individuals or a species that are best adapted to survive and reproduce. The evolutionary changes are passed from one generation to the next within a species. Evolution proceeds at a very slow pace. Emergence of human beings from great apes took about 14 million years. It has been estimated that the ‘Homo sapiens’ came into existence only about 50,000 years ago.

Development

When we think of development, invariably we think of physical changes, as these are commonly observed at home with younger siblings, with parents and grandparents, in school with peers or others around us. From conception until the moment of death, we not only change physically, but we also change in the way we think, use language, and develop social relationships. Remember that, changes are not confined to any one area of a person’s life; they occur in the person in an integrated manner. Development is the pattern of progressive, orderly, and predictable changes that begin at conception and continue

सभी असाइनमेंट आंसर की लिस्ट देखने के लिए निचे दिए लिंक पर क्लिक करे जिसमे आप अपने सभी सब्जेक्ट्स का असाइनमेंट ढूंढ सकते है

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throughout life. Development mostly involves
changes — both growth and decline, as
observed during old age. Development is influenced by an interplay of biological, cognitive, and socio-emotional processes. Development due to genes inherited from parents, such as in height and weight, brain, heart, and lungs development, etc. all point towards the role of biological processes. The role of cognitive processes in development relate to mental activities

associated with the processes of knowing, and experiencing, such as thought, perception, attention, problem solving, etc.

Education Understanding Human Development Solved Assignment Answer

Socio-emotional processes that influence development refer to changes in an individual’s interactions with other people, changes in emotions, and in personality. A child’s hug to her/his mother, a young girl’s affectionate gesture to her/his sibling, or an adolescent’s sorrow at losing a match are all reflections of socio-emotional processes deeply involved in human development.

Although you would be reading about the different processes in different chapters of this textbook, it is important to remember that the biological, cognitive, and socio-emotional processes are interwoven. These processes influence changes in the development of the individual as a whole throughout the human life-span.

Life-Span Perspective on Development

The study of development according to the Life-Span Perspective (LSP) includes the following assumptions :

  • Development is lifelong, i.e. it takes place across all age gr oups starting from conception to old age. It includes both gains and losses, which interact in dynamic (change in one aspect goes with changes in others) ways throughout the life-span.
  • The various processes of human development, i.e. biological, cognitive, and socio-emotional are interwoven in the development of a person throughout the life-span.
  • Development is multi-directional. Some dimensions or components of a given dimension of development may increase, while others show decrement. For example, the experiences of adults may make them wiser and guide their decisions. However, with an increase in age, one’s performance is likely to decrease on tasks requiring speed, such as running.
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  • Development is highly plastic, i.e. within person, modifiability is found in psychological development, though plasticity varies among individuals. This means skills and abilities can be improved or developed throughout the lifespan.
  • Development is influenced by historical conditions. For example, the experiences of 20-year olds who lived through the freedom struggle in India would be very different from the experiences of 20 year olds of today. The career orientation of school students today is very different from those students who were in schools 50 years ago.
  • Development is the concern of a number of disciplines. Different disciplines like psychology, anthropology, sociology, and neurosciences study human development, each trying to provide answers to development throughout the life-span.
  • An individual responds and acts on contexts, which include what was inherited, the physical environment, social, historical, and cultural contexts. For example, the life events in everyone’s life are not the same, such as, death of a parent, accident, earthquake, etc., affect the course of one’s life as also the positive. influences such as winning an award or getting a good job. People keep on changing with changing contexts

आशा है कि आप सभी असाइनमेंट अच्छे तरीके से बना रहे है अपने दोस्तों और दोस्तों के दोस्तों के साथ इसे शेयर करे ताकि सभी अपना असाइनमेंट जल्दी बना सके, सोशल मीडिया पर थोड़ा प्यार देकर हमारी मदद करे

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Role of family in human Development

Family is the fundamental unit of human society. It provides all its members with security, identity and values, regardless of age. When a member of the family feels insecure or unsafe, he or she turns to his or her family for help. A family is the first school from which a child learns about the basic values of life. It gets lessons in good manners in its family. The morals and values nurtured in the family become his or her guiding force. Families are at the core of human development. Among the natural and fundamental bases of society, families are central to man’s quest for dignity, peace and justice. Moreover, as a basic economic unit in every society, families are keys to global efforts to eliminate poverty and bring about prosperity.

Role Of Society In Human Development

another is as a rule extremely limited; the collectivity as a whole is the main educational force. Here the psychological factors are very important. It is essential that a person should feel himself part The human being and the group. The problem of man cannot be solved scientifically without a clear statement of the relationship between man and society, as seen in the primary collectivity—the family, the play or instruction group, the production team and other types of formal or informal collectivity. In the family the individual abandons some of his specific features to become a member of the whole.

The life of the family is related to the division of labour according to sex and age, the carrying on of husbandry, mutual assistance in everyday life, the intimate life of man and wife, the perpetuation of the race, the upbringing of the children and also various moral, legal and psychological relationships. The family is a crucial instrument for the development of personality.

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It is here that the child first becomes involved in social life, absorbs its values and standards of behaviour, its ways of thought, language and certain value orientations. It is this primary group that bears the major responsibility to society. Its first duty is to the social group, to society and humanity. Through the group the child, as he grows older, enters society. Hence the decisive role of the group. The influence of one person on of a group at his own wish, and that the group should voluntarily accept him, take in his personality.

Human rights-based approaches form the basis of much of the literature. Rights underpin the purpose of human development interventions, and provide the guiding structure for measuring outcomes. As such, human rights encompass all aspects of social development. There are, however, four distinct social development issues under the human rights umbrella that deserve particular attention:

Education Understanding Human Development Solved Assignment Answer
  • Accountability of governments, services, and interventions helps ensure transparency and fulfillment of obligation in realizing human development. Rights-based development is based on development actors’ accountability in protecting and delivering those rights.
  • Gender inequality remains a significant driver of poverty and gender inequity. Unequal power relations between men and women affect people’s ability to fully access resources, services, institutions and power that lead to human development. This applies at both individual and structural levels.
  • Children, adolescents and older people warrant special consideration in the realization of human development. Poor human development at an early age can have a strong impact on the rest of life. Adolescents and older people have specific vulnerabilities and human development needs, which may not be adequately catered for in broadly targeted programmes.
  • Socially excluded groups experience discrimination and inability to access services and institutions. Ethnic minorities, people living with disabilities (PWD), and those in isolated, rural locations experience individual and structural disadvantages, which restrict their ability to realise their rights and human development.

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Almost all of the literature in this guide adopts an equity or inequality approach. Many papers recommend an equity approach to service provision. An equity approach is firmly embedded in human rights and, by recognizing different individual and group needs, ensures greater access to services for a greater number and range of people than a blanket approach which offers the same services to everyone. On the whole, the literature recommends a multidimensional, relational, and inter-sectoral approach to research and interventions.

Question 4

What do you understand by inclusive education? What kind of fundamental changes are needed in the structure of education system to make education inclusive? Explain with examples.

Answer 4

Inclusive education means that all students attend and are welcomed by their neighbourhood schools in age-appropriate, regular classes and are supported to learn, contribute and participate in all aspects of the life of the school.

. Inclusive education is about how we develop and design our schools, classrooms, programs and activities so that all students learn and participate together.

, Inclusive education is about ensuring access to quality education for all students by effectively meeting their diverse needs in a way that is responsive, accepting, respectful and supportive. Students participate in the education program in a common learning environment with support to diminish and remove barriers and obstacles that may lead to exclusion.

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Inclusive education is carried out in a common learning environment; that is, an educational setting where students from different backgrounds and with different abilities learn together in an inclusive environment. Common learning environments are used for the majority of the students’ regular instruction hours and may include classrooms, libraries, gym, performance theatres, music rooms, cafeterias, playgrounds and the local community. A common learning environment is not a place where students with intellectual disabilities or other special needs learn in isolation from their peers

Effective common learning environments:
  • Enable each student to fully participate in the learning environment that is designed for all students and is shared with peers in the chosen educational setting;
  • Provide a positive climate, promote a sense of belonging and ensure student progress toward appropriate personal, social, emotional and academic goals;
  • Are responsive to individual learning needs by providing sufficient levels of support and applying student-centred teaching practices and principles
  • Common learning environment: an inclusive environment where instruction is designed to be delivered to students of mixed ability and with their peer group in the community school, while being responsive to their individual needs as a learner, and used for the majority of the students’ regular instruction hours
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Inclusive education in India is rather a novel endeavor which means the schools creating effective classroom functioning where educational needs of all children including those with disabilities may be addressed. In well developed countries like USA many excluded and marginalized groups of children labelled as “different” and “difficult” are getting special educational facilities in a successful way. But in India, such efforts for meeting the needs of SEN learners have proved cumbersome and the teachers and planners have faced many obstacles with regard to the realization of objectives of education.

सभी असाइनमेंट आंसर की लिस्ट देखने के लिए निचे दिए लिंक पर क्लिक करे जिसमे आप अपने सभी सब्जेक्ट्स का असाइनमेंट ढूंढ सकते है

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Infact, segregated special schools are the second level alternative educational arrangement and it would be rather injudicious on the part of nation,which is the world’s largest democratic secular republic, to marginalize and segregate those who need our more attention, understanding, emphatic attitude and permissive environment for development and healthy living. Realizing this fact, more and more communities of the world are opting for inclusive education pattern where all children can get education together and learn to live together.The present book deals with fundamentals of inclusive education. It provides information about the different aspects of inclusive education including its meaning, need, objectives and principles. The subject-matter also deals with transition from segregation to inclusion and the prominent models of inclusive education.

Example :

Benefits for students
For students with disabilities (SWD), this includes academic gains in literacy (reading and writing), math, and social studies — both in grades and on standardized tests — better communication skills, and improved social skills and more friendships. More time in the general classroom for SWD is also associated with fewer absences and referrals for disruptive behavior. This could be related to findings about attitude — they have a higher self-concept, they like school and their teachers more, and are more motivated around working and learning.

Their peers without disabilities also show more positive attitudes in these same areas when in inclusive classrooms. They make greater academic gains in reading and math. Research shows the presence of SWD gives non-SWD new kinds of learning opportunities. One of these is when they serve as peer-coaches. By learning how to help another student, their own performance improves. Another is that as teachers take into greater consideration their diverse SWD learners, they provide instruction in a wider range of learning modalities (visual, auditory, and kinesthetic), which benefits their regular ed students as well.

Parent’s feelings and attitudes

Parents, of course, have a big part to play. A comprehensive review of the literature found that on average, parents are somewhat uncertain if inclusion is a good option for their SWD. On the upside, the more experience with inclusive education they had, the more positive parents of SWD were about it. Additionally, parents of regular ed students held a decidedly positive attitude toward inclusive education.

Now that we’ve seen the research highlights on outcomes, let’s take a look at strategies to put inclusive education in practice.

Inclusive classroom strategies

There is a definite need for teachers to be supported in implementing an inclusive classroom. A rigorous literature review of studies found most teachers had either neutral or negative attitudes about inclusive education . It turns out that much of this is because they do not feel they are very knowledgeable, competent, or confident about how to educate SWD.

Use a variety of instructional formats

Start with whole-group instruction and transition to flexible groupings which could be small groups, stations/centers, and paired learning. With regard to the whole group, using technology such as interactive whiteboards is related to high student engagement. Regarding flexible groupings: for younger students, these are often teacher-led but for older students, they can be student-led with teacher monitoring. Peer-supported learning can be very effective and engaging and take the form of pair-work, cooperative grouping, peer tutoring, and student-led demonstrations

Ensure access to academic curricular content

All students need the opportunity to have learning experiences in line with the same learning goals. This will necessitate thinking about what supports individual SWDs need, but overall strategies are making sure all students hear instructions, that they do indeed start activities, that all students participate in large group instruction, and that students transition in and out of the classroom at the same time. For this latter point, not only will it keep students on track with the lessons, their non-SWD peers do not see them leaving or entering in the middle of lessons, which can really highlight their differences.

Apply universal design for learning

These are methods that are varied and that support many learners’ needs. They include multiple ways of representing content to students and for students to represent learning back, such as modeling, images, objectives and manipulative, graphic organizers, oral and written responses, and technology. These can also be adapted as modifications for SWDs where they have large print, use headphones, are allowed to have a peer write their dictated response, draw a picture instead, use calculators, or just have extra time. Think too about the power of project-based and inquiry learning where students individually or collectively investigate an experience.

Now let’s put it all together by looking at how a regular education teacher addresses the challenge and succeeds in using inclusive education in her classroom.

आशा है कि आप सभी असाइनमेंट अच्छे तरीके से बना रहे है अपने दोस्तों और दोस्तों के दोस्तों के साथ इसे शेयर करे ताकि सभी अपना असाइनमेंट जल्दी बना सके, सोशल मीडिया पर थोड़ा प्यार देकर हमारी मदद करे

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