EVS Assignment Answer: आजके इस आर्टिकल में हम जानने वाले है Sol DU के EVS (Environmental science) के सवाल के जवाब के बारे में, काफी बच्चे अभी भी लगे हुए है Sol DU के असाइनमेंट डाउनलोड करने में, लेकिन सर्वर की दिक्कत की वजह से नहीं हो पा रहा है इस आर्टिकल में आपको मै आपको SOL DU के EVS (Environmental science) के सवाल का जवाब बताने वाला हु, BA EVS Assignment Answers
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What do you understand by the multidisciplinary nature of environmental studies? How the multidisciplinary approach is helpful in solving various environmental problems?
The multidisciplinary nature of Environmental Science is imbibed in its definition that it is the study of the interaction of physical,chemical and biological components of human surroundings. To put it straight any action taken by human and its effect on the surrounding and vice versa comes under the purview of Environmental Science. Lemme give an example, air pollution is a grave issue threatening the existence of life on Earth.
Environmental studies deal with every issue that affects an organism. It is essentially a multidisciplinary approach that brings about an appreciation of our natural world and human impacts on its integrity. It is an applied science as it seeks practical answers to making human civilization sustainable on the earth’s finite resources.
Its components include biology, geology, chemistry, physics,
engineering, sociology, health, anthropology, economics, statistics, computers and philosophy.
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As we look around at the area in which we live, we see that our surroundings were originally a natural landscape such as a forest, a river, a mountain, a desert, or a combination of these elements. Most of us live in landscapes that have been heavily modified by human beings, in villages, towns or cities. But even those of us who live in cities get our food supply from surrounding villages and these, in turn, are dependent on natural landscapes such as forests, grasslands, rivers, seashores, for resources such as water for agriculture, fuel wood, fodder, and fish. Thus our daily lives are linked with our surroundings and inevitably affects them. We use water to drink and for other day-to-day activities. We breathe air, we use resources from which food is made and we depend on the community of living plants and animals which form a web of life, of which we are also a part. Everything around us forms our environment and our lives depend on keeping its vital systems as intact as possible.
Our dependence on nature is so great that we cannot continue to live without protecting the earth’s environmental resources. Thus most traditions refer to our environment as ‘Mother Nature’ and most traditional societies have learned that respecting nature is vital for their livelihoods. This has led to many cultural practices that helped traditional societies protect and preserve their natural resources. Respect for nature and all living creatures is not new to India. All our traditions are based on these values. Emperor Ashoka’s edict proclaimed that all forms of life are important for our well being in Fourth Century BC.
Environmental Science (AECC) Assignment Answer
Over the past 200 years, however, modern societies began to believe that easy answers to the question of producing more resources could be provided by means of technological innovations. For example, though growing more food by using fertilizers and pesticides, developing better strains of domestic animals and crops, irrigating farmland through mega-dams and developing industry, led to rapid
economic growth, the ill effects of this type of development, led to environmental degradation.
Evs Assignment Answer: The industrial development and intensive agriculture that provides the goods for our increasingly consumer-oriented society use up large amounts of natural resources such as water, minerals, petroleum products, wood, etc. Nonrenewable resources, such as minerals and oil are those which will be exhausted in the future if we continue to extract these without a thought for subsequent generations. Renewable resources, such as timber and water, are those which can be used but can be regenerated by natural processes such as regrowth or rainfall. But these too will be depleted if we continue to use them faster than nature can replace them. For example, if the removal of timber and firewood from a forest is faster than the regrowth and regeneration of trees, it cannot replenish the supply. And a loss of forest cover not only depletes the forest of its resources, such as timber and other non-wood products but affect our water resources because an intact natural forest acts like a sponge which holds water and releases it slowly. Deforestation leads to floods in the monsoon and dry rivers once the rains are over.
Such multiple effects on the environment resulting from routine human activities must be appreciated by each one of us if it is to provide us with the resources we need in the long-term
Ba Hons Environmental Science Assignment Answer
Our natural resources can be compared with money in a bank. If we use it rapidly, the capital will be reduced to zero. On the other hand, if we use only the interest, it can sustain us over the longer term. This is called sustainable utilization or development.
The environment is not a single subject. It is an integration of several subjects that include both Science and Social Studies. To understand all the different aspects of our environment we need to understand biology, chemistry, physics, geography, resource management, economics and population issues. Thus the scope of environmental studies is extremely wide and covers some aspects of nearly every major discipline.
We live in a world in which natural resources are limited. Water, air, soil, minerals, oil, the products we get from forests, grasslands, oceans and from agriculture and livestock, are all a part of our life support systems. Without them, life itself would be impossible. As we keep increasing in numbers and the quantity of resource improving this situation will only happen if each of us begins to take actions in our daily lives that will help preserve our environmental resources. We cannot expect Governments alone to manage the safeguarding of the environment, nor can we expect other people to prevent environmental damage. We need to do it ourselves. It is a responsibility that each of us must take on as one’s own.
Sol Du Evs Assignment Answer
The productive value of nature: As scientists make new advances in fields such as biotechnology we begin to understand that the world’s species contain an incredible and uncountable number of complex chemicals. These are the raw materials that are used for developing new medicines and industrial products and are a storehouse from which to develop thousands of new products in the future. The flowering plants and insects that form the most species-rich groups of living organisms are thus vital for the future development of man. If we degrade their habitat these species will become extinct. If one sees being sold or used, a product that comes from an illegally killed wild species, if we do not inform the authorities, we become a party to its extinction. Once they are lost, man cannot bring them back. When we permit the destruction of a forest, wetland or other natural area and do not protest about it, future generations are being denied the use of these valuable resources and will blame us for these rash and negligent actions towards the environment.
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Evs Assignment Answer: Thus the urgent need to protect all living species is a concept that we need to understand and act upon. While individually, we perhaps cannot directly prevent the extinction of a species, creating a strong public opinion to protect the National Parks and Wildlife Sanctuaries in which wild species live is an important aspect of sustainable living. There is a close link between agriculture and the forest, which illustrates its productive value. For crops to be successful, the flowers of fruit trees and vegetables must be pollinated by insects, bats and birds. Their life cycles however frequently require intact forests.
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Aesthetic/Recreational value of nature: The aesthetic and recreational values that nature possesses enlivens our existence on earth. This is created by developing National Parks and Wildlife Sanctuaries in relatively undisturbed areas. A true wilderness experience has not only recreational value but is an incredible learning experience. It brings about an understanding of the oneness of nature and the fact that we are entirely dependent upon the intricate functioning of ecosystems.
The beauty of nature encompasses every aspect of the living and nonliving part of our earth. One can appreciate the magnificence of a mountain, the power of the sea, the beauty of a forest, and the vast expanse of the desert. It is these natural vistas and their incredible diversity of plant and animal life that has led to the development of several philosophies of life. It has also inspired artists to develop visual arts and writers and poets to create their works that vitalize our lives.
A wilderness experience has exceptional recreational value. This has been described as nature tourism, or wildlife tourism, and is also one aspect of adventure tourism. These recreational facilities not only provide a pleasurable experience but are intended to create a deep respect and love for nature. They are also key tools in educating people about the fragility of the environment and the need for sustainable lifestyles.
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In an urban setting, green spaces and gardens are vital to the psychological and physical health of city dwellers. It provides not only an aesthetic and visual appeal but the ability to ensure that each individual is able to access a certain amount of peace and tranquility. Thus urban environmental planners must ensure that these facilities are created in growing urban complexes. Another important conservation education facility in urban settings includes the need to set up well designed and properly managed zoological parks and aquariums. These have go great value in sensitizing school students to wildlife. Many young people who frequented zoos as young children grow up to love wildlife and become conservationists.
Evs Assignment Answer: In the absence of access to a Protected Area, a botanical garden or a zoo, one concept that can be developed is to create small nature awareness areas with interpretation facilities at district and taluka levels. These areas can be developed to mimic natural ecosystems even though they could be relatively small in size. Such nature trails are invaluable assets for creating conservation education and awareness. They can be developed in a small woodlot, a patch of grassland, a pond ecosystem, or be situated in an undisturbed river or coastal area. This would bring home to the visitor the importance of protecting our dwindling wilderness areas.
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The option values of nature: While we utilize several goods and services of nature and enjoy its benefits, we must recognize that every activity that we do in our daily lives has an adverse impact on nature’s integrity. Thus if we use up all our resources, kill off and let species of plants and animals become extinct on earth, pollute our air and water, degrade land, and create enormous quantities of waste, we as a generation will leave nothing for future generations. Our present generation has developed its economies and lifestyles on unsustainable patterns of life. however, nature provides us with various options on how we utilize its goods and services. This is its option value. We can use up goods and services greedily and destroy its integrity and long-term values, or we can use its resources sustainably and reduce our impacts on the environment. The option value allows us to use its resources sustainably and preserve its goods and services for the future.
The environment is defined as the complex of physical, biotic, and chemical factors (such as living things, climate, and soil) that act upon an organism or an ecological community and ultimately determine its survival and form (Merriam-Webster’s dictionary). It is derived from the French word environ, meaning external conditions or surroundings that favor the growth of flora and fauna, human beings, and their properties and protect them from the effects of pollution. According to Douglas and Holland (1947), the environment describes, in the aggregate, all of the extrinsic (external) forces, influences, and conditions, which affect the life, nature, behavior, and the growth, development, and maturation of living organisms. The “environment” includes land, water, air, and the interrelationship which exists between these elements and human beings, other living creatures, microorganism, plants, and property (Environmental Protection Act 1986).
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Evs Assignment Answer: Sustainable development is multidisciplinary concept in its nature and is covered by various bodies of sciences. Yet, its literature is fragmented and each specific discipline of knowledge analyzes it and teaches it from its narrow perspective. Therefore, this paper suggests a new conceptual framework for teaching sustainability that as-sumes the multidisciplinary nature of sustainability. This framework is consists of ten concepts, a distinctive theme, and each one represents a specific domain or field that is related to sustainability. The themes represent the ethical, social, economic, ecological, spatial, design, and political aspects of sustainability. The ten con-ceptsare intertwined and interconnected and together they construct the holistic scene of understanding and teaching sustainability. These concepts are very useful for teaching sustainability. Moreover, each concept could be in-depth discussed individually in a specific class session. Each discipline could take advantage of this framework and may emphasize various aspects accordingly.
What are the biogeochemical cycles? Describe various types of biogeochemical cycles in the ecosystems.
In ecology and Earth science, a biogeochemical cycle or substance turnover or cycling of substances is a pathway by which a chemical substance moves through biotic (biosphere) and abiotic (lithosphere, atmosphere, and hydrosphere) compartments of Earth. There are biogeochemical cycles for the chemical elements calcium, carbon, hydrogen, mercury, nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus, selenium, and sulfur; molecular cycles for water and silica; macroscopic cycles such as the rock cycle; as well as human-induced cycles for synthetic compounds such as polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB). In some cycles there are reservoirs where a substance remains for a long period of time.
Energy flows directionally through Earth’s ecosystems, typically entering in the form of sunlight and exiting in the form of heat. However, the chemical
components that make up living organisms are different: they get recycled. the atoms in your body are not brand new. Instead, they’ve been cycling through the biosphere for a long, long time, and they’ve been part of many organisms and nonliving compounds along the way. You may or may not believe in reincarnation as a spiritual concept, but there’s no question that atoms in your body have been part of a huge number of living and nonliving things over the course of time. The six most common elements in organic molecules—carbon, nitrogen, hydrogen, oxygen, phosphorus, and sulfur— take a variety of chemical forms. They may be stored for long or short periods in the atmosphere, on land, in water, or beneath the Earth’s surface, as well as in the bodies of living organisms. Geologic processes—such as weathering of rocks, erosion, water drainage, and the subduction of continental plates—all play a role in this recycling of materials, as do interactions among organisms.
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The ways in which an element—or, in some cases, a compound such as water—moves between its various living and nonliving forms and locations is called a biogeochemical cycle. This name reflects the importance of chemistry and geology as well as biology in helping us understand these cycles. Biogeochemical cycle, any of the natural pathways by which essential elements of living matter are circulated. The term biogeochemical is a contraction that refers to the consideration of the biological, geological, and chemical aspects of each cycle. Elements within biogeochemical cycles flow in various forms from the nonliving (abiotic) components of the biosphere to the living (biotic) components and back. In order for the living components of a major ecosystem (e.g., a lake or a forest) to survive, all the chemical elements that make up living cells must be recycled continuously. Each biogeochemical cycle can be considered as having a reservoir (nutrient) pool—a larger, slow-moving, usually abiotic portion—and an exchange (cycling) pool—a smaller but more-active portion concerned with the rapid exchange between the biotic and abiotic aspects of an ecosystem. Biogeochemical cycles can be classed as gaseous, in which the reservoir is the air or the oceans (via evaporation), and sedimentary, in which the reservoir is Earth’s crust. Gaseous cycles include those of nitrogen, oxygen, carbon, and water; sedimentary cycles include those of iron, calcium, phosphorus, sulfur, and other more-earthbound elements.
Evs Assignment Answer: Gaseous cycles tend to move more rapidly than do sedimentary ones and to adjust more readily to changes in the biosphere because of the large atmospheric reservoir. Local accumulations of carbon dioxide (CO2), for example, are soon dissipated by winds or taken up by plants. Extraordinary disturbances (such as global warming) and more-frequent local disturbances (such as wildfires and storm-driven events) can, however, seriously affect the capacity for self-adjustment.
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Sedimentary cycles vary from one element to another, but each cycle consists fundamentally of a solution (or water-related) phase and a rock (or sediment) phase. In the solution phase, weathering releases minerals from Earth’s crust in the form of salts, some of which dissolve in water, pass through a series of organisms, and ultimately reach the deep seas, where they settle out of circulation indefinitely. In the rock phase, other salts deposit out as sediment and rock in shallow seas, eventually to be weathered and recycled.
Evs Assignment Answer: Plants and some animals obtain their nutrient needs from solutions in the environment. Other animals acquire the bulk of their needs from the plants and animals that they consume. After the death of an organism, the elements fixed in its body are returned to the environment through the action of decomposers (decay organisms such as bacteria, insects, and fungi) and become available to other living organisms again.
The matter on Earth is conserved and present in the form of atoms. Since matter can neither be created nor destroyed, it is recycled in the earth’s system in various forms.
The earth obtains energy from the sun which is radiated back as heat, rest all other elements are present in a closed system. The major elements include:
Types of Biogeochemical Cycles
Biogeochemical cycles are basically divided into two types:
- Gaseous cycles – Includes Carbon, Oxygen, Nitrogen, and the Water cycle.
- Sedimentary cycles – Includes Sulfur, Phosphorus, Rock cycle, etc.
Let us have a look at each of these biogeochemical cycles in brief:
The water from the different water bodies evaporates, cools, condenses and falls back to the earth as rain.
This biogeochemical cycle is responsible for maintaining weather conditions. The water in its various forms interacts with the surroundings and changes the temperature and pressure of the atmosphere.
Evs Assignment Answer: There’s another process called Evapotranspiration (i.e. vapour produced from leaves) which aids this process. It is the evaporation of water from the leaves, soil and water bodies to the atmosphere which again condenses and falls as rain.
Stages of Water Cycle
There are many processes involved in the movement of water. Listed below are different stages of the water cycle.
The sun is the ultimate source of energy, and it powers most of the evaporation that occurs on earth. Evaporation generally happens when water molecules at the surface of water bodies become excited and rise into the air. These molecules with the highest kinetic energy accumulate into water vapour clouds. Evaporation usually takes place below the boiling point of water. Another process called evapotranspiration occurs when evaporation occurs through the leaves of plants. This process contributes to a large percentage of water in the atmosphere.
Sublimation occurs when snow or ice changes directly into water vapour without becoming water. It usually occurs as a result of dry winds and low humidity. Sublimation can be observed on mountain peaks, where the air pressure is quite low. The low air pressure helps to sublimate the snow into water vapour as less energy is utilized in the process. Another example of sublimation is the phase where fog bellows from dry ice. On earth, the primary source of sublimation is from the ice sheets covering the poles of the earth.
The water vapour that accumulated in the atmosphere eventually cools down due to the low temperatures found at high altitudes. These vapours become tiny droplets of water and ice, eventually coming together to form clouds.
Above 0 degrees centigrade, the vapours will condense into water droplets. However, it cannot condense without dust or other impurities. Hence, water vapours attach itself on to the particle’s surface. When enough droplets merge, it falls out of the clouds and on to the ground below. This process is called precipitation (or rainfall). In particularly cold weather or extremely low air pressure, the water droplets freeze and fall as snow or hail.
Rainwater gets absorbed into the ground through the process of infiltration. The level of absorption varies based on the material the water has seeped into. For instance, rocks will retain comparatively less water than soil. Groundwater can either follows streams or rivers. But sometimes, it might just sink deeper, forming aquifers.
If the water from rainfall does not form aquifers, it follows gravity, often flowing down the sides of mountains and hills; eventually forming rivers. This process is called runoff. In colder regions, icecaps form when the amount of snowfall is faster than the rate of evaporation or sublimation. The biggest icecaps on earth are found at the poles.
It is one of the biogeochemical cycles in which carbon is exchanged among the biosphere, geosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere and pedosphere.
All green plants use carbon dioxide and sunlight for photosynthesis. Carbon is thus stored in the plant. The green plants, when dead, are buried into the soil that gets converted into fossil fuels made from carbon. These fossil fuels when burnt, release carbon dioxide into the atmosphere.
Evs Assignment Answer: Also, the animals that consume plants, obtain the carbon stored in the plants. This carbon is returned to the atmosphere when these animals decompose after death. The carbon also returns to the environment through cellular respiration by animals.
Huge carbon content in the form of carbon dioxide is produced that is stored in the form of fossil fuel (coal & oil) and can be extracted for various commercial and non-commercial purposes. When factories use these fuels, the carbon is again released back in the atmosphere during combustion.
Carbon Cycle Steps-:
- Carbon present in the atmosphere is absorbed by plants for photosynthesis.
- These plants are then consumed by animals, and carbon gets bioaccumulated into their bodies.
- These animals and plants eventually die, and upon decomposing, carbon is released back into the atmosphere.
- Some of the carbon that is not released back into the atmosphere eventually become fossil fuels.
- These fossil fuels are then used for man-made activities, which pumps more carbon back into the atmosphere.
It is the biogeochemical cycle by which nitrogen is converted into several forms as it circulates through the atmosphere, terrestrial and marine ecosystems.
Nitrogen is an essential element of life. The nitrogen in the atmosphere is fixed by the nitrogen-fixing bacteria present in the root nodules of the leguminous plants and made available to the soil and plants.
The bacteria present in the roots of the plants convert this nitrogen gas into a usable compound called ammonia. Ammonia is also supplied to plants in the form of fertilizers. This ammonia is converted into nitrites and nitrates.
The denitrifying bacteria reduce the nitrates into nitrogen and return it into the atmosphere.
Types of Nitrogen Fixation
- Atmospheric fixation: A natural phenomenon where the energy of lightning breaks the nitrogen into nitrogen oxides and is then used by plants.
- Industrial nitrogen fixation: Is a man-made alternative that aids in nitrogen fixation by the use of ammonia. Ammonia is produced by the direct combination of nitrogen and hydrogen, and later, it is converted into various fertilisers such as urea.
- Biological nitrogen fixation: We already know that nitrogen is not usable directly from the air for plants and animals. Bacteria like Rhizobium and blue-green algae transform the unusable form of nitrogen into other compounds that are more readily usable. These nitrogen compounds get fixed in the soil by these microbes.
Evs Assignment Answer: This biogeochemical cycle moves through the atmosphere, the lithosphere and the biosphere. Oxygen is a very abundant element on our Earth. It is found in the elemental form in the Atmosphere to the extent of 21%.
Oxygen is released by the plants during photosynthesis. Humans and other animals inhale the oxygen exhale carbon dioxide which is again taken in by the plants. They utilize this carbon dioxide in photosynthesis to produce oxygen, and the cycle continues.
Stages of the Oxygen Cycle
The steps involved in the oxygen cycle are:
Stage-1: All green plants during the process of photosynthesis, release oxygen back into the atmosphere as a by-product.
Stage-2: All aerobic organisms use free oxygen for respiration.
Stage-3: Animals exhale Carbon dioxide back into the atmosphere which is again used by the plants during photosynthesis. Now oxygen is balanced within the atmosphere.
Uses of Oxygen
Evs Assignment Answer: In this biogeochemical cycle, phosphorus moves through the hydrosphere, lithosphere and biosphere. Phosphorus is extracted by the weathering of rocks. Due to rains and erosion phosphorus is washed away in the soil and water bodies. Plants and animals obtain this phosphorus through the soil and water and grow. Microorganisms also require phosphorus for their growth. When the plants and animals die they decompose, and the stored phosphorus is returned to the soil and water bodies which is again consumed by plants and animals and the cycle continues.
This biogeochemical cycle moves through the rocks, water bodies and living systems. Sulphur is released into the atmosphere by the weathering of rocks and is converted into sulphates. These sulphates are taken up by the microorganisms and plants and converted into organic forms. Organic sulphur is consumed by animals through food. When the animals die and decompose, sulphur is returned to the soil which is again obtained by the plants and microbes, and the cycle continues.