Indian Government and Politics Assignment Answer: आजके इस आर्टिकल में हम जानने वाले है Sol DU के (Indian Government and Politics) के सवाल के जवाब के बारे में, काफी बच्चे अभी भी लगे हुए है Sol DU के असाइनमेंट डाउनलोड करने में, लेकिन सर्वर की दिक्कत की वजह से नहीं हो पा रहा है इस आर्टिकल में आपको मै आपको SOL DU के (Indian Government and Politics) के सवाल का जवाब बताने वाला हु, Sol Du Ba Sem-II Indian Government and Politics Assignment Answer
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Discuss the impact of caste system of Indian polity?
In India, the caste system developed and is prevalent since ancient times and it remains as a great thorn in the growth of Mother India. The origin of caste system could be the functional groupings, called varnas, which have their origins in the Aryan society. “According to the Rig Veda hymn, the different classes sprang from the four limbs of the Creator. The Creator‘s mouth became the Brahman priests, his two arms formed the Rajanya (Khastriyas), the warriors and kings, his two thighs formed the Vaishya, landowners and merchants, and from his feet were born the Shudra (Untouchables) artisans and servants Then, it is believed that the caste system had been adopted by the Brahmins to express their superiority. When the Aryan races swept into India, they wanted to maintain the superiority and so they maintained the caste systems. Gradually the caste system became formalized into four major groups, each with its own rules and regulations and code of conduct
सभी असाइनमेंट आंसर की लिस्ट देखने के लिए निचे दिए लिंक पर क्लिक करे जिसमे आप अपने सभी सब्जेक्ट्स का असाइनमेंट ढूंढ सकते है
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The Origin and Evolution of Caste System:-
Caste in Indian society refers to a social group where membership is
largely decided by birth. This caste system became fixed and hereditary with the emergence of Hinduism and its beliefs of pollution and rebirth. The Laws of Manu (Manusmitri), refer to the impurity and servility of the outcastes, while affirming the dominance and total impunity of upper castes. Those from the ―lowest‖ castes are told that their place in the caste hierarchy is due to their sins in their past life. Vivid punishments of torture and death are assigned for crimes such as gaining literacy or insulting a member of a dominant caste. Manusmitri, the most authoritative text of Hindu religion legitimizes social exclusion and introduces absolute inequality as the guiding principle of social relations.
Caste still very much matters to Indian citizens even in the modern world, though one must point out that different groups of citizens have different reasons for maintaining the system of caste. The upper castes want to keep caste alive to oppress the lower castes thereby maintaining their domination. It is very interesting to note that the lower caste groups, who are supposed to hate the caste system, also want to use their caste identity to gain benefits in the corridors of power and politics and, at the same time, they want to put a stop to the caste oppression imposed upon them by the upper castes. It is an ironical and interesting situation of the Indian society in modern India.
Indian Government and Politics Assignment Answer
Actually, it was meant to show that the four classes stood in relation to the social organization in the same relation as the different organs of the Primordial Man to his body. Together they had to function to give vitality to the body politic.‖ But the caste system grown to the level of retarding the growth of an individual in the name of caste and there by affecting the fundamental rights of an individual to live or to grow, which is the essence of democracy. How caste system affects the Democracy can broadly be classified under two headings.
- Societal Democracy
- Political Democracy
Caste System Vs Societal Democracy
The roots of democracy lie not in the form of Government, Parliamentary or otherwise. A democracy is more than a form of government. It is primarily a mode of associated living. The roots of democracy are to be searched in the social relationship, in the terms of associated life between people who form a society.
Caste is the most confused knot of all social problems. Indian society is cast ridden. Religion is just a belief and it can change anytime in the life, but caste is a constant factor which don’t change even when religion changes. It doesn‘t change when occupation changes or social status changes.
That is Caste remains constant. It is like a omega value simply a mere constant don’t change in any situation. Caste system does not allow for upward mobility in society. If a person’s family comes from the lower economic strata, in a society based on a caste system, that person would need to remain within that restricted level. Caste system affects the society by making the people more exposed to prejudice, stereotyping and other things. These differences in rankings often cause disputes within the society. Caste system is filled with inequality and injustice.
The people of one caste don‘t like to mix with others. This division of society into so many religions, castes and subcastes comes in the way of the unity and integrity of the Indian nation.
Caste System is the only reason behind women slavery. It encourages child marriage and opposes remarriage. Women are treated only as sex machine. In many castes women are not allowed to study, work outside or speak their mind. Caste system is the reason behind the lower status of women in some of the communities. No caste in India respect women rights and their feelings. An Indian cannot eat or marry with an Indian simply because he or she does not belong to his or her caste. An Indian simply cannot touch an Indian because he or she does belong to his or her caste.
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Caste System is the precursor of Communal Violence by continuously suppressing a section of people. It forces lower caste people to take weapons in their hand. Naxalite,maoistetc movements are just an aggression of lower caste people on economic inequality. Limited choice of occupations, which is enforced within a caste as well as by other castes. A caste might follow more than one traditional occupation but its members would nonetheless be constrained to that range Restrictions on dietary and social interactions that define who could consume what and accept from whom. As with marriage arrangements, these restrictions apply at sub-caste level, not merely at the caste level. Physical segregation is there in many parts of the country. These are accompanied by limitations on movement and access, including to religious and educational areas and to basic
facilities such as supplies of water.
Since caste is an age old system which is followed traditionally, people find it difficult to accept the new ideal and scientific principles. Caste system discriminates people and it violates all human rights norms on which UN instruments are founded. In its application, Caste has led to sub-human treatment of a vast population. Presently, India’s Dalits constitute around 17% of the population.With other minorities, such as tribal peoples, Sikhs and Muslims, minorities in India constitute roughly 85%; the overwhelming
majority. To this day, the level of violence against Dalits and other ‘lower’ Castes is atrocious. Social degradation perpetuated under the Caste system has very few parallels in human history.
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Such treatment continues to this day. Discrimination is extended to all aspects of life: whether in employment, education, health, land holding,security, and all aspects of women’s rights. The psychological effects on ‘inferior’ Castes constitute gross human rights abuse and a continuing cruelty and thereby affecting the democracy.
We have to remember and recollect the fact that the Indian society does not consist of individuals. It consists of innumerable collection of castes, which are exclusive in their life and have no common experience to share and have no bond of sympathy. The existence of caste system is a standing denial of the existence of those ideals of society and therefore of democracy.
They are jealous of one another. It is an ascending scale of hatred and descending scale of contempt. Democracy is essentially an alliance building exercise based on ideology but in our country alliance building was a criminal alliance of one particular community with other one (both stronger ones and numerically powerful one) resulting in the marginalization of the other communities.
The government, which was designed for the people, has got into the hands of the bosses and their employers, the special interests. An invisible empire has been set up above the forms of democracy.
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Caste becomes important in politics because politics is highly competitive. Its purpose is to gain power for certain ends. It, therefore, exploits all kinds of loyalties in the society to gain and consolidate certain political positions; organization and articulation of support are important in the above process of politics in our country. Caste is one such organization with which the people are associated. The linkage between politics and caste is thus important and in the process both interact so closely that they are transformed. Party programmes also cut across caste loyalties and members of one caste may be divided on the basis of ideological affiliations.
Write an essay on the nature of the party system in India?
“Party government”, said Bagehot, “is the vital principle of representative government”. The political parties are not usually of the government. “They are below or behind: they do most of their work in the twilight zone of the politics.
Development of Thought:
To understand the nature of, system in any society, it is necessary to keep in mind that party originates in the patterns of cleavage and alignment among social forces Different relationships among social forces and different sequences in the development of cleavages among them give rise to different types of party systems.
Given this intimate linkage between the nature of social cleavages
and the types of party system, it is quite natural that the transformation of latent socio- economic cleavages into manifest political conflicts would profoundly influence the development of the party system in India.
The nature of Indian party system, therefore, can only be
understood in the context of its environment and expected role.
In short, only in a formal democracy, parties attain significance. The parties have sprung up to turn social thought into political action. Political parties are the indispensable links between the people and the representative machinery of government. In a democracy they are the vehicles through which individuals and groups work to secure political power and. if successful, to exercise that power. They have a no less significant function when in opposition, of scrutinizing the use of power and forcing the government con-stantly to justify its policies and actions. Also any democratic political system requires peoples’ support for government programmers and policies, and this support can be mobilized by a
Further a liberal democratic government operates in a milieu of challenges and opposition and political part- plays a crucial role to meet challenges of opposition.
Yet the concept of political party has changed from age to age. While Burke, for instance, defined it as a body, of men united for the purpose of promoting by their joint endeavors the public interest, upon some principle on which they are all agreed; Laski viewed it as art organization which seeks determine the economic constitution of the State.
There are good reasons why political parties are so hard to define. Their genesis is difficult to disentail’ from the evolution of the modern society and state, the role of a party changes substantially as political conditions in a country change.
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For instance in the West, political parties are thought of primarily as
representative instruments, a means of ensuring peaceful and regular alternation of government through the succession of leaders to public office.
These act as instruments of articulation and canalization of diverse and confused demands of multiple and competing social groups. But in developing societies the parties are rarely limited to the more or less passive role of transmitting private wants to the makers of public policies.
Nor are they aggregative devices, collecting varying expressions of want, belief, and outlook in some faithful manner. Quite the contrary, the politi-cal parties of a developing society are expected to play an active entrepreneurial role in the formation of new ideas, in the establishment of a network of commu-nication for those ideas, and in the linking of the public and the leadership in such a way that power is generated, mobilized and directed.
The contemporary party system in India developed originally in the
context of the struggle for freedom and since 1950 within the
framework of a parliamentary government; both these environments
have exerted their influence on the present character and structure
of the political parties.
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The context of the struggle for freedom tells that the evolution of parties in India has been on a different footing than those of Western democracies. In India, unlike the West, social and economic change did not precede political development.
Since the growth of science and technology was slow and the development of the country’s economy poor and uneven, society as a whole remained unmodernized. The elite commit-ment to modernity, involving a radical change in the traditional value system and social relationships, therefore, was weak and ambivalent
The Indian situation thus provided hardly any ground for the development of the party system .from within. Like capitalism, therefore, the development of party system also pro-ceeded from an application of external stimuli. The British provided it as a part of an historical process.
According to Thomas Hodgkin, up to a point the colonial situation tends to promote one party dominance. Because the ending of the status of subordination is an overriding aim, the nationalist movement is liable to assume the form of a dominant mass party symbolizing the aspirations of the nascent nation.
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This Party usually strives to be all things to everyone. Its leaders tend to assume that they and their party properly incarnate all the legitimate interests of the society.
However, the unity of the national party is sometimes an illusion. For it is not a body of people with a common approach to social problems but a coalition of special interests, each with its own particular grievance against the colonial regime.
The superficiality of the atmosphere of consensus created by the nation-alist movement becomes more apparent as the prospects of political autonomy Improves.
As each interest group man oeuvres to consolidate its influence, it becomes increasingly difficult to keep up the semblance of unity, for increase in influence for one of these groups often implies loss of influence for another.
The following are some of the most important ones:
According to R. G. Gettel, a political party is “a group of citizens more or less organised, who act as a political unit and who by the use of their political power aim at controlling the government and carrying out its general policies.”
Herman Finer defined it as “an organised body with voluntary membership, its concerted energy being employed in the pursuit of
political power.” For Edmund Burke, it is “a body of men united for
promoting by their joint endeavours the national interest upon some
particular principle in which they are all agreed.”
The following are some of the characteristics of political parties:
- It should be an organized body, because it can derive strength from an effective organization. Such an organization is all the more necessary to establish rapport with the masses. Without a mass-basis, a political party cannot speak for the people.
- The members of a political party must abide by the broad principles of public policy adopted by its organization. The members may differ on the details of the policy and programme, but there must be cohesion of the minimum objectives of the party.
- Every political party must be national-minded, i.e., in aims and functions it must take into consideration the interest of the nation. A party which falls short of a national character and represents only a sectarian outlook cannot be a political party.
- It should be the bounden duty of every political party to capture power through constitutional means. A party which does not have such power-capturing programme cannot be included in the club of the political parties. But capturing power by some violent or unlawful means cannot be allowed in the arena of the political parties. The means of capturing such powers must also be peaceful and lawful.
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In this context in specific Indian conditions after independence although the Indian National Congress became a party, it was still entirely different from an ordinary party uniting members who believe in the same ideals and have the same objectives.
The party retained the character of the nationalist movement in seeking to balance and accommodate social and ideological diversity within an all-embracing, representative structure- claiming sole legitimacy as the nation-alist party, the Congress sought to resolve or avoid internal conflict balance interests, and blur ideological distinctions in its search for consensus.
Moreover in consolidating its power after independence it sought to achieve a national consensus through the accommodation and absorption of dominant social ele-ments that had kept aloof from the nationalist movement. Traditional caste and village leaders, landlords and businessmen made their way into the Congress.
Thus, the Congress, which functioned as a broad-based nationalist move-ment before independence, transformed itself into the dominant political party of the nation.
आशा है कि आप सभी असाइनमेंट अच्छे तरीके से बना रहे है अपने दोस्तों और दोस्तों के दोस्तों के साथ इसे शेयर करे ताकि सभी अपना असाइनमेंट जल्दी बना सके, सोशल मीडिया पर थोड़ा प्यार देकर हमारी मदद करे
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